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我会副会长张岂之-中国古代思想文化的最高命题: 天人之学

信息来源: 作者: 发布日期:2013-01-24 16:10:45 点击:

Zhang Qizh
Professor Zhang Qi Zhi was born on 11 0ctober 1927 in Nantong county, Jiangsu province, China. He graduated from the department of philosophy of Peking University, Beijing, China, with the bachelor's degree in 1950. 1950-1952, he studied for the master's degree in philosophy in the Humanities Institute of Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Professor Zhang is the pre-president of Northwest University, Xi'an, China, now the honorary president of Northwest University, the director of the Institute of Chinese Thought and Culture of Northwest University, and the chief editor of Chinese Culture (quarterly publication), Vice Chairman of Association for Yan Huang Culture of China, Director of Academic Committee. Also he is the professor of the department of history at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. He has been researching into the history of ancient Chinese thought, the history of Chinese philosophy and higher education for a long time. The works which he compiled or wrote are the Chronicle of Chinese Academic Thoughts (6 volumes), A History of Chinese Thoughts (6 volumes), A Chinese History (6 volumes), the Spirit of Chinese Humanity and so forth, and numerous research articles and essays on academic journals.

The highest proposition of ideology and culture of ancient China:
The study of heaven and mankind

According t0 30 years research, the author believes that "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam", "Doctrine of Change",and "Doctrine of Hui Tong" are themes of chinese culture. The "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" comes before the other themes. We can understand it from 5 aspects following.

1. The source of chinese culture
The legendary Yan Huang Period 5000 years ago was the source of chinese culture. That period was the equal oflate Yang Shao culture and Long Shan culture which belonged to Neolithic Age according to archaeology. Infant farming has laid a foundation seven or eight thousands years ago in China. The distribution of agriculture was rice in the south and millet in the north. People had needed to think about relationship of Heaven and human from a long time experience which showed up that agriculture relyed on Heaven. And this was the source of ancient chinese "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam".

2. Pay more attention to human affairs than Way of Heaven
There were two concepts of Heaven in Westem Zhou Dynasty 3000 years ago. The first one was "Tian Ming", which maens wills and wishes of ancestors. The second one was natural celestial----Heaven. "Tian Ming" was everywhere in Westem Zhou Dynasty because people believed that they need to divine to know ancestors' wills. And this was source of Classic Zhou Yi.
School of Bing which made research on military affairs had emerged in Spring and Autumn Period. The great military strategist Sun Wu of Qi State presented concepts of favourable timing, geographical and human conditions firstly in Art of War by Sun Wu. And he thought victory or defeat of war depend on the three concepts above. Ancient Chinese theory paid more attention to human affairs than Way of Heaven because of practices from war rather than thinker'sutopian.

3. Theoretic System of Lao Zi "Tao of Heaven and Nature"
The great philosopher Lao Zi in the late Spring and Autumn Period and Classic of the Way and Virtue discussed:1) There is no God's power, no affectations, no struggle, no speech and no dominant heart, but only natural Way ofHeaven. 2) Way of human should follow Way of Heaven. Administrators should possess character of "pliability" and"doing nothing that goes against nature": not to be self-opinionated, not to be obstinate, not to harass people, but to behonest and consider for common people. It is the only method for impregnable "Way of human" to "harmony".

4. Confucian doctrine of Heaven and Human in the pre-Qin period
Taoism advocated "pliability" and "doing nothing that goes against nature" while Confucian emphasizing vigour and impartiality. And furthermore Confucius mixed them up and asserted The Doctrine of the Mean.
Confucian stood for the unity of Heaven, Earth and Human. Human should respect Heaven and Earth and never destroy them. Because Heaven and Earth are mother of all creatures and source of human. And at the same time human should learn from Heaven and Earth. It is called "Sheng Sheng Zhi Wei Yi"(non stop changing and creating everything is Yi) There are profound connatations in these themes which can still teach people today.
The confucian Xun Zi in late Warring States Period advanced a new theory from "Seperation of Heaven and Human"to "Combination of Heaven and Human". '6Seperation of Heaven and Human" means we can see different characters of Heaven and human. And "nature" is more colorful rather than a dull existence with one color and one voice. Realize some principle laws of nature and promote agricultural production effectively to develop human society. "Combination of Heaven and Human" means people can find identity from differences and get along well with nature.

5. Ancient Chinese "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" differs from western philosophy
"Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" could be called important frame of ancient chinese academia because it has penetrated in every aspects of ancient chinese thinking and culture. But, we need to distinguish theology and superstition which were propagated by the way of "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam".
The ancient Greek philosophy has begun with searching nature in western world. The highest theme of western philosophy is the relationship of thinking and Being. Many westem scholars and famous philosophors started to pay attention to relationship between human and nature and ancient chinese "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" because
of global environmental crisis in late 20th' century.
We made research on chinese culture with foreign scholars through conversation and communication. We compared and supplemented chinese and foreign culture with each other to defend and promote the diversity of human cultures.Cultural diversity is the chief motive force for developing cultures. And this is a heavy work we need to do well.And this is also the purpose ofintroducing "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" in this paper.


张岂之教授,1927年11月生于中国江苏省南通县,1950年毕业于中国北京大学哲学系,获哲学学士学位,同年考入中国清华大学文科研究所攻读哲学硕士研究生,1952年毕业。现任中国西北大学名誉校长,中国清华大学历史系教授,西北大学中国思想文化研究所所长、教授,((华夏文化》季刊主编,兼任中华炎黄文化研究会副会长、学术委员会主任。张岂之教授长期从事中国思想史、中国哲学史和高等教育研究,主编或自著的著作有:《中国思想学术史编年》(6卷)、Ⅸ中国思想学说史》(6卷)、《中国历史》(6卷)、 《中华人文精神》等,并在各类报刊发表有百余篇学术论文。

根据三十多年来的研究,笔者认为“天人之学”、 “变易之学”与“会通之学”是中国文化的主题。其中, “天人之学”是中国古代思想文化的最高命题,我们可以从以下五个方面进行理解。
春秋末期大思想家老子和《老子》书论述: (1)天道自然而然,没有神力,没有矫饰,它不争,不言,没有主宰之心。 (2)人道应当效法天道,施政者应具备“柔弱”、 “无为”的品格和风貌;要做到淳朴、不自以为是、不固执己见、不扰民、以百姓之心为心。这样“人道”才能立于不败之地,从而达到“和谐”境界。
道家主张“柔弱”、 “无为”,儒家则强调刚健中正,并进而主张刚柔相济,二者相互为用,这就是孔子“中庸”的精义所在。