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我会副会长张岂之-中国古代思想文化的最高命题: 天人之学

信息来源: 作者: 发布日期:2013-01-24 16:10:45 点击:

Zhang Qizh
Professor Zhang Qi Zhi was born on 11 0ctober 1927 in Nantong county, Jiangsu province, China. He graduated from the department of philosophy of Peking University, Beijing, China, with the bachelor's degree in 1950. 1950-1952, he studied for the master's degree in philosophy in the Humanities Institute of Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Professor Zhang is the pre-president of Northwest University, Xi'an, China, now the honorary president of Northwest University, the director of the Institute of Chinese Thought and Culture of Northwest University, and the chief editor of Chinese Culture (quarterly publication), Vice Chairman of Association for Yan Huang Culture of China, Director of Academic Committee. Also he is the professor of the department of history at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. He has been researching into the history of ancient Chinese thought, the history of Chinese philosophy and higher education for a long time. The works which he compiled or wrote are the Chronicle of Chinese Academic Thoughts (6 volumes), A History of Chinese Thoughts (6 volumes), A Chinese History (6 volumes), the Spirit of Chinese Humanity and so forth, and numerous research articles and essays on academic journals.

The highest proposition of ideology and culture of ancient China:
The study of heaven and mankind

According t0 30 years research, the author believes that "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam", "Doctrine of Change",and "Doctrine of Hui Tong" are themes of chinese culture. The "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" comes before the other themes. We can understand it from 5 aspects following.

1. The source of chinese culture
The legendary Yan Huang Period 5000 years ago was the source of chinese culture. That period was the equal oflate Yang Shao culture and Long Shan culture which belonged to Neolithic Age according to archaeology. Infant farming has laid a foundation seven or eight thousands years ago in China. The distribution of agriculture was rice in the south and millet in the north. People had needed to think about relationship of Heaven and human from a long time experience which showed up that agriculture relyed on Heaven. And this was the source of ancient chinese "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam".

2. Pay more attention to human affairs than Way of Heaven
There were two concepts of Heaven in Westem Zhou Dynasty 3000 years ago. The first one was "Tian Ming", which maens wills and wishes of ancestors. The second one was natural celestial----Heaven. "Tian Ming" was everywhere in Westem Zhou Dynasty because people believed that they need to divine to know ancestors' wills. And this was source of Classic Zhou Yi.
School of Bing which made research on military affairs had emerged in Spring and Autumn Period. The great military strategist Sun Wu of Qi State presented concepts of favourable timing, geographical and human conditions firstly in Art of War by Sun Wu. And he thought victory or defeat of war depend on the three concepts above. Ancient Chinese theory paid more attention to human affairs than Way of Heaven because of practices from war rather than thinker'sutopian.

3. Theoretic System of Lao Zi "Tao of Heaven and Nature"
The great philosopher Lao Zi in the late Spring and Autumn Period and Classic of the Way and Virtue discussed:1) There is no God's power, no affectations, no struggle, no speech and no dominant heart, but only natural Way ofHeaven. 2) Way of human should follow Way of Heaven. Administrators should possess character of "pliability" and"doing nothing that goes against nature": not to be self-opinionated, not to be obstinate, not to harass people, but to behonest and consider for common people. It is the only method for impregnable "Way of human" to "harmony".

4. Confucian doctrine of Heaven and Human in the pre-Qin period
Taoism advocated "pliability" and "doing nothing that goes against nature" while Confucian emphasizing vigour and impartiality. And furthermore Confucius mixed them up and asserted The Doctrine of the Mean.
Confucian stood for the unity of Heaven, Earth and Human. Human should respect Heaven and Earth and never destroy them. Because Heaven and Earth are mother of all creatures and source of human. And at the same time human should learn from Heaven and Earth. It is called "Sheng Sheng Zhi Wei Yi"(non stop changing and creating everything is Yi) There are profound connatations in these themes which can still teach people today.
The confucian Xun Zi in late Warring States Period advanced a new theory from "Seperation of Heaven and Human"to "Combination of Heaven and Human". '6Seperation of Heaven and Human" means we can see different characters of Heaven and human. And "nature" is more colorful rather than a dull existence with one color and one voice. Realize some principle laws of nature and promote agricultural production effectively to develop human society. "Combination of Heaven and Human" means people can find identity from differences and get along well with nature.

5. Ancient Chinese "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" differs from western philosophy
"Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" could be called important frame of ancient chinese academia because it has penetrated in every aspects of ancient chinese thinking and culture. But, we need to distinguish theology and superstition which were propagated by the way of "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam".
The ancient Greek philosophy has begun with searching nature in western world. The highest theme of western philosophy is the relationship of thinking and Being. Many westem scholars and famous philosophors started to pay attention to relationship between human and nature and ancient chinese "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" because
of global environmental crisis in late 20th' century.
We made research on chinese culture with foreign scholars through conversation and communication. We compared and supplemented chinese and foreign culture with each other to defend and promote the diversity of human cultures.Cultural diversity is the chief motive force for developing cultures. And this is a heavy work we need to do well.And this is also the purpose ofintroducing "Doctrine of Heaven and Humam" in this paper.

张岂之

张岂之教授,1927年11月生于中国江苏省南通县,1950年毕业于中国北京大学哲学系,获哲学学士学位,同年考入中国清华大学文科研究所攻读哲学硕士研究生,1952年毕业。现任中国西北大学名誉校长,中国清华大学历史系教授,西北大学中国思想文化研究所所长、教授,((华夏文化》季刊主编,兼任中华炎黄文化研究会副会长、学术委员会主任。张岂之教授长期从事中国思想史、中国哲学史和高等教育研究,主编或自著的著作有:《中国思想学术史编年》(6卷)、Ⅸ中国思想学说史》(6卷)、《中国历史》(6卷)、 《中华人文精神》等,并在各类报刊发表有百余篇学术论文。

中国古代思想文化的最高命题:天人之学
根据三十多年来的研究,笔者认为“天人之学”、 “变易之学”与“会通之学”是中国文化的主题。其中, “天人之学”是中国古代思想文化的最高命题,我们可以从以下五个方面进行理解。
1、中华文化的源头
距今5000多年的炎黄时代是中华文化的源头。用中国考古学的名称说,炎黄时代相当于新石器时代的仰韶文化后期与龙山文化。距今约七、八千年,在中国,原始农业已有相当的基础。当时的农业结构是南稻北粟:南方种稻米,北方种小米。农业靠“天”吃饭,由此长期实践,人们不能不思考人与天的关系。这就是后来中国古代天人之学的来源。
2、重人事而轻天道的思想
距今3000多年的西周时期,“天”的概念有两种,一种称之为“天命”,指的是高高在上的祖先神的意志、愿望;再一个是茫茫苍天,即自然的天体。在西周,“天命”观念比比皆是,认为人间要了解祖先神的意志,要靠占,这就是《周易》-书的来源。
春秋时期,研究军事的兵家出现,齐国大军事家孙武在《孙子兵法》中首次提出天时、地利、人和的概念,认为战争胜负取决于这三者。我国古代重人事轻天道的理论来源于战争的实践,又能提到理论的高度予以总结,而不是思想家们空想的产物。
3、老子“天道自然”的理论体系
春秋末期大思想家老子和《老子》书论述: (1)天道自然而然,没有神力,没有矫饰,它不争,不言,没有主宰之心。 (2)人道应当效法天道,施政者应具备“柔弱”、 “无为”的品格和风貌;要做到淳朴、不自以为是、不固执己见、不扰民、以百姓之心为心。这样“人道”才能立于不败之地,从而达到“和谐”境界。
4、先秦时期儒学的天人之学
道家主张“柔弱”、 “无为”,儒家则强调刚健中正,并进而主张刚柔相济,二者相互为用,这就是孔子“中庸”的精义所在。
儒家讲天、地、人“三才”的统一。人对待天、地,应当有敬畏之心,加以礼敬,不可毁坏。因为天、地是万物之母、人的生养之源。人同时应当学习天、地,与时俱进,这叫做“生生之谓易”。这些命题含有深刻的内涵。在今天,对人们仍然有很大的教益。
战国末期儒学总结者苟子在天人之学上别开生面,提出了从“天人相分”到“天人相合”的理论观点。所谓“天人相分”指的是:应当看到天和人的各自特点,呈现于人面前的是千姿百态的“自然界”,不是一个色彩、一种声音的单调死板的存在。人们可以认识自然的某些法则,有效地进行农业生产,使人类社会发展。人们面对自然,有能力在异中求同,达到和而不同,与自然和谐相处,这就是天人相合的境界。
5、中国古代“天人之学”与西方哲学不同
“天人之学”渗透于中国古代思想文化的方方面面,它也许可以称作是中国古代学术的重要架构。不过,神学迷信等也往往借用天人之学的形式加以宣传,所以在天人之学中往往鱼龙混杂,需作仔细分辨。
在西方,古希腊哲学是从探寻自然开始的,西方哲学的最高命题是思维和存在关系问题。西方有识之士关注天(自然)与人相互关系的探讨,已经是20世纪中叶以后的事,由于全球性生态环境危机,西方许多著名哲学家才开始注意中国古代天人之学的理论及其实践意义。
中华文化走向世界,与外国学者们共同研究,通过对话与交流,使中外文化相互比较,相互补充,以维护并推进人类文化的多样性;文化多样性是文化得以进步和发展的主要动力,这是一项繁重而必须要做好的工作。
笔者在本文中介绍中国思想文化中的天人之学,也正是出于这个目的。


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