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邝李道: 华人和中华文化在澳大利亚 —从早期旅居者到当代

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Kwong Lee DowKwong was born and educated in Melboume. His grandparents came from SzeYap, Canton settling in Austr...

Kwong Lee Dow

Kwong was born and educated in Melboume. His grandparents came from SzeYap, Canton settling in Australia from the 1890s. One grandfather practiced traditional Chinese herbal medicine in country Victoria, the other was a market gardener in Launceston, Tasmania.

Much of his working life has been in the University of Melboume, as Professor of Education since 1973, as Dean of Education for twenty years, then as Deputy Vice-Chancellor for six years, and Vice-Chancellor in 2004. Since formal retirement he was briefly Vice-Chancellor of the University of Ballarat.

Kwong has held various Australian government and Victorian government appointments, leading and participating in reviews of university education, school and teacher education. He has held professional and govemment appointments in Hong Kong, New Zealand, Singapore and Saudi Arabia.

He has been recognized by professional bodies in the field of Education, and is a Member and an Officer in the Order ofAustralia.

He is married, with two adult daughters and two grandsons.

Chinese people and Chinese culture in Australia-from earlier sojourners through to today This talk is intended to set the scene for some of the topics for the Forum. It briefiy characterizes that part of the Chinese diaspora that came to Australia from the mid nineteenth century onwards, with a principal focus on recent times.

Early mass emigration from China arose from the combination of bad times at home and good times abroad. When the Cantonese called San Francisco Gum San (Gold Hills) and Australia Sum Gum San (New Gold Hills), they sailed from the Four Districts of the Pearl River delta to take steamships from Canton or Hong Kong to the goldfields of California, New South Wales and Victoria.

But in the rich multicultural communities that make up contemporary Australia, Chinese culture derives from recent emigrants from the People's Republic of China, from south-east Asian Chinese who came to Australia from the 1960s, as well as from the Australian bom descendants of nineteenth century pioneers. Within the stories of these people, we leam of two sets of social, cultural and political revolutions- those which have taken place in Australia, and those which have taken place in China- over this period of around 160 years.

Wang Gungwu stresses the speed at which the cultural landscape has changed since the late 1960s: 'Partly because of the new political realities in the region following the end of World War 2, and partly because of the guilty reaction against past inhumane policies, there was a readiness to welcome Asians into Australia which was unprecedented.

This was an extraordinary social and cultural revolution for Australia, something many settled white Australians have welcomed, but others have found hard to digest.'
Reviewing census data released this year, one commentator warned-don't aim your business at white Australia, because Australia hasn't looked that way for quite a while. The highest ever single annual increase in Australia'spopulation occurred in 2009, with an annual growth rate of l.8 percent, unmatched since 1972. This population increase owes more to migration than to natural increase, and migration includes long-term temporary migrants with student, holiday and business visas. The effect is strongest in the 25-29 year age group.

Lots of Australians speak languages other than English. Almost half of longer standing migrants and two-thirds of recent arrivals speak Languages other than English at home. The most frequent languages spoken at home are, in order- Mandarin, Italian, Arabic, Cantonese and Greek.

As the paper looks briefly at the cultural contributions of Chinese immigrants across many diverse fields- traditionalChinese medicine and health more broadly, education, business, technologies, philosophies and the visual andperforming arts, we can speculate whether today's Chinese migrants, better educated and less bound by traditional Chinese values, will repeat the migrant behaviours of their predecessors, or whether a totally new kind of Chinese Australian is evolving.

 

邝李道

邝教授在墨尔本出生,并在墨尔本接受教育。他的祖父母于十九实世纪九十年代从广东的四邑地区移民到澳大利亚。一位祖父在维多利亚州从事中草药行业,另一位在塔斯马尼亚的Launceston当市场花园的园丁。

他的职业生涯主要是在墨尔本大学度过的,自从1973年以来,他担任该大学的教育学教授,并担任了20年的教育学系主任,然后担任了6年的首席副校长,从2004年起担任实际主持学校日常工作的副校长。正式退休后,他短暂担任过巴拉瑞特大学的副校长。

邝教授担任过澳大利亚改府和维多利亚州政府的多种职位,领导和参与了大学教育、中小学和师范教育的评审。他还在香港、新西兰、新加坡和沙特阿拉伯担任过专业性职位和政府职位。

他的成就得到教育界专业机构的公认,他也是澳洲功勋工作人员奖和澳洲勋章三等勋衔的获得者。

他已婚,有两个成年女儿和两个外孙。

华人和中华文化在澳大利亚——从早期旅居者到现在

这一讲话旨在为这次论坛的一些话题设置背景。它简单扼要地描述了十九世纪中叶以来移民到澳大利亚的华人社群的特点,重点是最近年代。

中国早期的大规模移民是由于国内的衰落和国外的兴旺这两种因素的结合造成的。当广东人把圣弗朗西斯科称为“金山”并把澳大利亚称为“新金山”时,他们在珠江三角洲的四个区乘坐轮船,从广州或香港到加利福尼亚、新南威尔士和维多利亚的金矿。

然而,当今澳大利亚由富裕的多文化社区组成,在这些社区中,中华文化的来源如下:新近从中国大陆来的移民、在二十世纪六十年代移民来澳大利亚的东南亚华人、以及在澳大利亚出生的华人后代(他们的先辈是十九世纪的移民)。从这些人的故事中,我们了解到近160年来发生的两种社会、文化和政治革命:一种是在澳大利亚发生的,另一种是在中国发生的。

王赓武强调二十世纪六十年代末以来文化景观改变的速度:“部分是由于第二次世界大战结束后这一地区的新政治现实,部分是由于对过去不人道政策的一种内疚反应,因此澳大利亚前所未有地愿意接收亚洲移民。对于澳大利亚来说,这是不同寻常的社会和文化变革,对于早已定居在澳大利亚的白人来说,其中一些变革是值得欢迎的,但对另外一些变革感到很难消化。”

一位评论家分析了今年发布的人口普查数据之后,警告说:不要把你的业务针对澳大利亚白人,因为澳大利亚已有相当长时间不是原来的样子了。澳大利亚有史以来人口增长最多的一年是在2009年,年增长率达到1.8%,这是1972年以来最高的。这种人口增长更多是由于移民因素,而不是由于自然增长,移民包括有学生签证、度假签证和商务签证的长期临时移民。这种效应在25-29岁这种年龄段最强。

除了英语之外,很多澳大利亚人还讲其它语言。几乎一半的长期移民和三分之二的新移民在家里讲英语以外的语言。在家里讲的语言中最普遍的依次如下:普通话、意大利语、阿拉伯语、粤语和希腊语。

本文简要讨论了中国移民在多种领域的文化方面的贡献,包括中医和保健,更广泛的是教育、商业、技术、哲学、视觉和表演艺术,我们可以推测:今天的中国移民受到更好的教育和较少受到传统中国价值观的约束,他们是会重复先辈移民的行为,还是会演化出一种全新的华裔澳大利亚人?


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