- 发布时间：2012-11-30 22:18
- 发布时间：2012-11-30 22:18
He is graduated from Department of History of Tsinghua University. He was in Marxism-Leninism Teaching Researching Group and Philosophy Researching Group in Tsinghua University. He is the former Director of Insitute of Humanities, Department of History of Tsinghua University.
The levels of Confucian morals
Confucian morals include different levels. It's important to recognize and analyse them Dao(doctrine) and De(virtue) are two basic levels in traditional morals.Zi Lu asks what is Junzi(gentleman). Kong Zi says: "Carefully nurture oneself. Nurture oneself to do good to other people."(Xianwen). The difference between human beings and animals lies in "Righteousness" and "group". To nurture oneself is to put the spiritual life in the first place, in which the righteousness is crucial; to do good to other people is to put oneselfin the group, care for others, share the weal and woe with the group. It is the raison d'etre of human being's existence and basic requirement to be a human being.
De also means 'to get'. If one gets Dao in himself, we can say he has De. Only then can Dao be a instruction of behaviors. Dao is the basic of De, De is the agency of Dao. Dao is the basic spirit throughout the moral system while De is the embodiment of Dao.De has two categories: the common, general De and specific De-s in human relationship. The De in human relationship is the requirement of the latter.
To precisely understand the characteristics of Confucian morals,one has to analyse the levels of it. Without such analysis means one can't recognize the origin, importance and relationships, thus Confucian morals will be in a isolated and plain status, not a solid whole object. The discussion of core values of Confucian theory has been heated with numerous viewpoints. This also results from a lack of analysis in levels.
The three levels of Confucian morals are from abstract to specific, while seen from its scope of regulations are from wide to narrow. The nurture of morality of human beings starts from the De of human relationship, from specific to abstract, from near to far. The levels of morality is the decisive factor of the sequence of moral education.
子路问君子。子日： “修己以敬。” “修己以安人。”“修己以安百姓。”（《宪问》）义与群，是人禽相区别，人之所以为人之所在。修己，以精神生命放在第一位，义以为上；安人安百姓，置身群体中，心系他人，与群体共命运，群己统一。正反映了人之所以为人之特质，是为人之道的根本要义。